So now that we know what the Internet of Things is. Let’s go further inside to explore the building blocks of IoT. Here’s a direct link to understand the basics of IoT.
Elements of IoT
Following are the four building blocks of IoT system and they have their own characteristics.
Sensors are the front end of the IoT devices. They really mean “things” in IoT. Their main task is to get necessary data from surroundings and pass it further to database or processing systems. They must be uniquely findable from there IP address because they are basic front end interface in the large network of other devices. Sensors collect real time data and can either work autonomous or can be user controlled.
Examples of sensors are: gas sensor, water quality sensor, moisture sensor, etc.
As computer and other electrical systems, processors are the brain of the IoT system. The main job of processors it to process raw data collected by the sensors and transforms them to some meaningful information and knowledge. In short, we can say that its job is to give intelligence to the data.
Processors are easily controllable by applications and their one more important job is to securing data. They perform encryption and decryption of data.
Microcontroller, embedded hardware devices, etc can process the data using processors attached within the devices.
Main task of gateways is to route the processed data and transfer it to proper databases or network storage for proper utilization. In other words, gateway helps in communication of the data. Communication and network connectivity are essentials for IoT systems.
Examples of gateways are LAN, WAN, PAN, etc.
Applications are another end of an IoT system. Applications do proper utilization of all the data collected and provide interface to users to interact with that data. These applications could be cloud based applications which are responsible for rendering data collected. Applications are user controllable and are delivery points of particular services.
Examples of applications are: smart home apps, security system control applications, industrial control hub applications, etc.
If we summarize the elements of IoT then we can say that the raw data gathered by the sensors are transferred to embedded processors. Processors transform raw data to meaningful information and then again transfer it to remote cloud based applications or database systems via gateway device connectivity. It then transfers to the applications for the proper applied usage and also for data analysis via big data.
Architecture layers of IoT
There are three layers in IoT system architecture. No. of layers and implementation of IoT systems may differ as per requirement. Generally, we can define IoT system architecture using these three layers.
Physical Layer consists of the three kinds of devices. First is Access system, this system can have different sensors and RF ID systems to collect raw data. Second is Internet Devices, these devices are mainly used for communication. And last is Transmission Line, it consists of all the high end communication devices such as satellites, transmission hubs and data networks. Main purpose of Physical layer is to collect data and transfer it to proper cloud based applications and database application.
Fundamental Resource Layer
This layer has two sub systems – Address Management System and IO Management System. As we discussed earlier, each thing in IoT ecosystem is uniquely identified by it IP Address. We need a system that manages all these devices in IoT system and that is done by Address Management System. It does address allocation, verification and tracing of all the devices. Another is IO Management System; it manages all the IO operations related to raw data. This system consists of application and database servers that actually analyze the data. This system controls the IO registration, resolution and monitoring tasks.
Application layer is the topmost layer of IoT architecture which does effective utilization of the data collected. These applications mainly work on information for rendering them in more meaningful manner. This layer provides IoT services. Application Layer is responsible for securing information and data. Certain situations require immediate responses. This layer helps to do that by extracting information, managing the data flow and abstracting data.
We, at WeblineIndia – an Offshore IoT application development company, have been an early adopter of IoT technology and developed applications based on IoT.
If you are looking for developing any IoT applications, contact us to leverage the cost advantage by outsourcing to us.