Java & Python are both popular technologies with state-of-the-art capabilities. Therefore it is often difficult to choose between Java vs Python. To make it easy for you, we have compared features, performance, speed, career & applications of Java vs Python.
Java has been around for quite a while. Since 1955, to be precise. It is old and yet has managed to be a popular choice of programming languages to date.
However, trends are changing. Python has rapidly caught the attention of developers and is now more popular than Java in several regions. One of the major reasons for this evolution in trend could be the difference in their typing and compilation.
Java is a compiled language, while Python is an interpreted language. Additionally, Java is statically typed and Python is dynamically typed. These small differences conclude that Java is easy to debug and also proves to be faster at runtime, while Python is easy to use, easy to read, and provides a vast range of libraries and a wide variety of tools for developers.
Yet, the comparison of Java vs Python still leaves some programmers confused, especially those who are just beginning their journey.
To make it simple, let’s start by understanding both the languages separately and then, compare both to identify how they both differ from each other. Is Java or Python better? Let’s find out.
What is Python?
Released and created by Guido van Rossum in the year 1991, Python is a dynamic, high-level, open-source programming language that supports both object-oriented programming and procedural-oriented programming. Python was designed with the aim to make it easier to read codes as compared to other languages.
Since Python syntax is nothing different from the English language or human speech, Python has managed to do exactly that. It is easy to read, easy to understand, and consequently, easy to learn.
Features of Python
It is the features provided by Python that make it so popular in today’s day and age. A few of them are mentioned below.
- There is no use of curly brackets or semicolons, making it easy to use and learn for beginners.
- Available for free on www.python.org.
- It supports object-oriented programming. This form of programming entirely depends on ‘objects’ as a concept, which means that data structures have their own attributes or properties and procedures or methods. These objects interact with each other and help make programming faster and cleaner, and make codes easy to debug, and easy to reuse.
- It supports GUI programming to develop Desktop applications.
- Integrating Python with other programming languages such as Java, C++, or C is easy.
- It can run cross-platform including UNIX, Macintosh, Windows, Linux, and more. Hence, it is a portable programming language.
- Since Python is easy to debug, maintaining its source code is not as challenging.
- It conducts automated garbage collection internally, making programming simpler. This means that the objects that are not being used by the application will be removed automatically.
Applications of Python
Python can be used for:
- Machine learning
- Artificial intelligence
- Web development
- Data analytics
- Game development
- Data visualization
What is Java?
Java is a compiled, general-purpose programming language that is commonly used for application development. Just like Python, Java supports object-oriented programming.
This programming language was created by James Gosling in the year 1955 and was designed to transform the user’s experience of the web. It was Java that led to the transformation of text-based web pages to now pages with animation and videos.
Java also has its share of libraries that developers can use to find code for a certain purpose.
Features of Java
The list of features that have kept Java at the top all these years includes:
- For those who have knowledge of C++, learning Java is not challenging. Its syntax is clean and easy to learn.
- Just like Python, Java also supports object-oriented programming.
- It is a WORA language, which means write once, run anywhere. It is not limited to specific platforms. The codes can be used across platforms including Linux, Mac/OS, Windows, and more.
- It provides automatic removal of objects that aren’t being used by the application any longer.
- Java provides securities, such as categorizing local file systems separately from the ones imported from network sources, checking for illegal codes, or narrowing down resources that can be accessed by a class, by default. This makes it one of the safest languages to develop systems that are virus-free.
- It is multi-threaded and thus, programmers can write codes that can handle multiple tasks at once.
- Java has been specifically designed for the distributed environment of the web. This means the user can access files from any machine on the net.
Applications of Java
Java can be used for:
- IoT applications
- Desktop GUI programming
- Game development
- Mobile app development
- Cloud-based application development
- Big Data technologies
- Scientific applications
This understanding of both programming languages makes one thing clear: the Java vs Python comparison can be tricky. Let’s compare and identify the best one.
Java Vs Python Comparison
This Java Vs Python difference and comparison table will help understand how the two languages are similar yet different.
|First Release||Jan 2015||May 2017|
|Compilation||Compiled language||Interpreted language|
|Typing||Statically typed||Dynamically typed|
|Syntax||Complex, based on C++||Easy to use and learn|
|Indentation vs Curly brackets||Defines beginning and end of each function and class definition using a curly bracket||Uses indentation (or spaces) to indicate a block of code|
|String functions||Limited string functions||Several string functions|
|Speed||Java is faster than Python||Interpreted language of Python makes its runtime comparatively slower|
|Portability||Better portability than Python, thanks to its virtual machine that can be obtained from anywhere||Not as popular or good as Java|
|Coding||Code documentation is longer and static||Codes and procedures are short and concise|
|Top features||– Popular and most commonly used|
– Provides a vast range of libraries
– Allows development of virus-free systems
|– Easy to use, read, and learn|
– Speeds up the development process
– Coding is simple
|Applications||Scientific applications, Desktop GUI applications, and cloud-based applications||Artificial intelligence, machine learning, and game development|
|Top brands using the language||Netflix, Instagram, Spotify||Google, Uber, DropBox|
So, this was the Java vs Python performance comparison. Both of their own share of pros and cons. If this didn’t cut it for you either, perhaps the comparison of Java vs Python salary and career opportunities might.
Java Vs Python: Careers
Python developers and software engineers are working across different technology fields and sectors. These include science, finance, machine learning, mobile app development, artificial intelligence, web development, and language creation, among others.
In the United States, the average salary of a Python engineer/developer is approximately $105,000 per year excluding benefits and bonuses.
On the other hand, Java developers find roles in the fields like desktop GUI app development, scientific application development, enterprise or business application development, web development, and mobile app development.
The average salary of a Java developer in the United States is $101,000 per year excluding benefits and bonuses. The salary increases with experience, position, and skill.
Is Java or Python better for Web App Development? (Conclusion)
So, now that we have the features, applications, and comparison laid out, let’s find out in between Java vs Python which is best for web development?
The main difference between the two programming languages is in their compilation and typing. While Java is a compiled language, Python is interpreted. Consequently, Python offers plenty of string functions, while Java offers only limited ones.
For those just starting out, Python turns out to be a better direction. It is simple, intuitive, and the syntax is similar to human speech. Java, on the other hand, was specifically designed with an aim to allow developers to write once run anywhere codes.
Towards the end, however, it all boils down to the cost and nature of the software project.
Frequently Asked Questions
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